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The River of Integration
Introducing Interpersonal Neurobiology to Feldenkrais Practitioners
Donna Ray


「“Know what you are doing, so you can do what you want.” All Feldenkrais Method (FM) practitioners know these words of Moshe Feldenkrais, Ph.D. They inspire us and we put them to use in our own ways, on our journey of self-discovery and our quest for knowledge.

My introduction to FM in 1982 changed my life, opening a doorway to greater self-awareness and creating a framework for acquiring new information. When I attended my first ATM class, I was a psychotherapy intern who had become frustrated by what I perceived to be the limitations of “talk therapy” with my clients. The FM offered something unique, more comprehensive; it engaged me immediately because it was so different from my own early learning experiences. I probably would have been diagnosed with ADHD, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Sitting still in classrooms was excruciating for me. I only wanted to learn what seemed practical and immediately applicable. Putting my hands on what I was learning made it come to life. During my first three-hour introductory course in the FM, I received a Functional Integration lesson from Feldenkrais trainer Mark Reese, Ph.D. When I stood up at the end of the lesson, I felt the way I had always wanted to feel, though I hadn’t known how to describe it before that moment. I felt at ease, light, open, present, alert, effortlessly at home with myself. This was my first experience of a dramatic “state shift,” a deep change that had taken place in my nervous system. The experience was so profound I felt compelled to enroll in the next available Feldenkrais training program.

The training program taught me how the autonomic nervous system’s powerful sympathetic (fight, flight, freeze) and parasympathetic (faint) components control significant state shifts and how these changes affect our behavior. My early study and teaching of the FM guided my understanding of the nervous system, which I imagined as a big, weblike structure running from the brain through the rest of the body. I could sense the nervous system responding while I was touching and moving others. And I readily observed changes in my own nervous system while practicing Awareness through Movement (ATM) and Functional Integration (FI) lessons. The FM helped me understand myself and the learning process, changing my self-image in powerful ways. With Dr. Feldenkrais, I learned to appreciate the intelligence of my own nervous system and saw how much more I was capable of. I absorbed what he meant when he said we are “learning how to learn through movement.”

When I began to integrate FM into my psychotherapy practice, I observed how it could elicit significant change in my clients, from the reactive extremes of the autonomic system to a kind of comfortable neutral state, where they became poised to respond to any novel or familiar situation in new ways. This neutral state, of simultaneously feeling calm and being alert, is distinct and wonderful; my students and clients marvel at it, just as I did after my first Functional Integration lesson. This may be one of the most dramatic and important experiences the FM offers. Appreciating changes in the nervous system within the context of learning, anxiety, depression, fear, and pain reduction has become critical to my therapeutic practice.

I have always been driven by curiosity to learn more and more for self-development and to share my process with others. Ten years ago I discovered the field of interpersonal neurobiology (IPNB) and the work of Dr. Dan Siegel, who is both a neuroscientist and a psychiatrist. IPNB has given me a deeper understanding of the brain and, consequently, more tools to strengthen my teaching of the FM. In his book The Developing Mind (2001), Siegel described practices I had been using and client behaviors I had observed for nearly two decades, and provided new scientific explanations and reasoning behind what works in therapy. Here is a brief summary of Siegel’s approach to what it means to be human and how therapy works:


I have always been driven by curiosity to learn more and more for self-development and to share my process with others. Ten years ago I discovered the field of interpersonal neurobiology (IPNB) and the work of Dr. Dan Siegel, who is both a neuroscientist and a psychiatrist. IPNB has given me a deeper understanding of the brain and, consequently, more tools to strengthen my teaching of the FM. In his book The Developing Mind (2001), Siegel described practices I had been using and client behaviors I had observed for nearly two decades, and provided new scientific explanations and reasoning behind what works in therapy. Here is a brief summary of Siegel’s approach to what it means to be human and how therapy works:

In the early 1990s, Daniel J. Siegel directed the training program in child and adolescent psychiatry at UCLA. Drawing on his natural tendency to synthesize and integrate, he pulled together an interdisciplinary study group on the mind and the brain in an effort to see the larger whole of human experience. The team included 40 people, representing more than a dozen branches of science, including anthropology, zoology, developmental psychology, linguistics, genetics, neuroscience, and systems theory. The result that emerged from that inspirational experience was a whole new field of science: interpersonal neurobiology, which presents an integrated view of how human development occurs within a social world (to be precise, that the neural patterns of our brains are literally affected by our relationships with other human beings). IPNB embraces a wide array of knowing that includes the sciences, contemplative practices, expressive arts, and philosophy to explore the nature of being human. Perhaps the most remarkable thing about this field is that it has created a bridge between the laboratory work of brain researchers and the mind work that happens on a therapist’s couch.1


As a seeker of truth, a Feldenkrais practitioner, and a psychotherapist, I immediately sensed a connection between Dr. Siegel's view of humanity and Feldenkrais’s approach. Based on my thirty-year immersion in the Feldenkrais Method and my decade of exposure to Dan Siegel’s IPNB, I would venture to say that both of these brilliant scientists/visionaries have been on a mission to save humans from their own idiotic behaviors, to improve the cultures that we live in and not just the individuals in those cultures. They rigorously put to use scientific principles that focus on guiding people toward health. This represents a shift toward what Siegel refers to as “neural integration” and what Feldenkrais termed “maturity.” In his book Body and Mature Behavior: A Study of Anxiety, Sex, Gravitation, and Learning, Feldenkrais says “What I understand by maturity, is the capacity of the individual to break up total situations of previous experience into parts, to reform them into a pattern most suitable to the present circumstances, i.e., the conscious control effectively becoming the over-riding servo-mechanism of the nervous system.”2

Let’s have a closer look at the connections between the FM and this emerging field of IPNB.

  • Both are based on the truth of natural learning and emphasize the importance of subjectivity (the individual’s point of view), science (rigorous examination of human behavior), and relationship (how relationships shape our self-image and our lives).
  • Both approach human functioning from the point of view of integration versus chaos. In Siegel’s terms, every person’s mind is hard-wired to reach for integration and connection. He and other scientists use the word neuroplasticity to describe the brain’s response to experience, or the way connections in the brain are capable of changing or being changed. One’s experience changes the function and structure of the brain itself, helps one change rigidity and chaos into integration. For Feldenkrais this assumption is a given: “My way of looking at the mind and the body, if you want to understand it, is to help make that structure of the entire human being functionally well-integrated. To make that change you have to rewire the mind in a special way.”
  • oth look at health and human functioning rather than pathology. Feldenkrais said “Our strengths are our weaknesses and our weaknesses are our strengths.” The FM is based on developing awareness and learning, not curing. IPNB shows us that inherent in all useful therapeutic process is the development of awareness. The FM is based on the continuous development of awareness.
  • Looking at Dan Siegel’s nine domains of integration in light of the FM helps us see more clearly how the FM stimulates integration in a variety of ways.

    1. Integration of Consciousness: “ How we focus our attention is the key to promoting integrative changes in the brain…….we actually build the skills to stabilize attention so that we can harness the power of awareness to create choice and change.3
    2. Horizontal (or bilateral) Integration: “Our left brain and right brain have separate but complementary functions.4 In the FM we access right and left hemispheric functioning. For example, during ATM we accentuate right brain activity by verbally guiding attention using imagery and developing holistic thinking. We activate left brain activity during ATM as well, by using logical language, by coherently developing functional movements, and by moving the right side of the body.
    3. Vertical Integration: “Our nervous system is vertically distributed, ascending from the body proper through the brainstem and limbic areas, finally arriving at the cortex...Vertical integration links these differentiated areas into a functional whole.5 The FM continuously integrates vertically. We attend to and alter breathing, tempo of movement, and muscular activation. We learn to reduce and redistribute muscular effort. We observe our thoughts, feelings, sensations, and actions, and discover how they are woven together.
    4. Memory Integration: “We process and encode our experiences in layers of memory.6 Implicit or embodied memory begins in the womb and continues until the hippocampus is mature enough to reflect on past, present, and future events. At this time, explicit memory begins. The FM includes developmental movements, from infancy to adulthood. The process of exploring infant and toddler movements through to the complex movements of adulthood activates implicit memory and integrates early learning into explicit, newly-formed autobiographical information.
    5. Narrative Integration: “We make sense of our lives by creating stories that weave our left hemisphere’s narrator function with the autobiographical memory storage of our right hemisphere.7 Within the FM we explore learning through movement. Sometimes the lessons are difficult and challenging, sometimes easy to do. There is often a surprise learning moment in the lesson. The learning experiences themselves change our personal narrative. As I said earlier, by practicing the FM, I learned that I was more capable than I imagined. This change in what Feldenkrais referred to as “self-image” is reflected in personal narrative, “making the impossible possible, the possible easy and the easy elegant.”
    6. State Integration: “Each of us experiences distinct states of being that embody our fundamental drives and needs: closeness and solitude, autonomy and independence, caregiving and mastery, among others…….With state integration, we can move beyond past patterns of adaptation and denial to become open to our needs and able to meet them in different ways at different times.8 The FM trains the student’s ability to shift from one state to another. We become aware of our patterns of behavior and see that we can shift from one state to another through movement and sensory motor learning.
    7. Interpersonal Integration: “This is the ‘we’ of well-being.9 The FM provides us with a context for safe, trusting, intimate learning relationships that shape new ways of relating with others. These relationships promote integration both within the practitioner and the student and between the two of them.
    8. Temporal Integration: “Temporal integration enables us to live with more ease and to find comforting connections in the face of uncertainty.10 While this connection to the FM may seem obscure, in my view Dr. Feldenkrais built this into his teachings. In the Amherst training, he once said “Your skeleton will outlive your soul.” He also said “Move as if your soul is doing the movement, that is, if you have one.” I think he made statements like this to provoke thinking while his students were moving in optimal ways; coupling uncomfortable thoughts with humor and feel-good, confident movements engendered an acceptance of mortality rather than a feeling of uncertainty.
    9. Transpirational Integration: Siegel notes that each of us has an inherent drive toward health, what he calls “a push toward integration.” He observes that his patients develop an expanded sense of identity, an awareness of being part of a larger whole. “In various research explorations of happiness and wisdom, this sense of interconnection seems to be at the heart of living a life of meaning and purpose. This is the promise of mindsight and integration.11 I believe that Feldenkrais intended the same outcome. During his trainings he created an atmosphere of learning that pushed his students toward integration, one that demanded the development of personal awareness, awareness of others, as well as awareness of the environment. In The Potent Self, Feldenkrais talks about becoming free of our cultural upbringing, becoming fully ourselves.

    Developing an understanding of these domains of integration may help Feldenkrais Method practitioners see more clearly how the FM is transforming human behavior. Siegel’s precise descriptions shed light on areas of change that we as practitioners do not explicitly emphasize. Considering the FM from these new perspectives has increased my awareness, and as I share them with other Feldenkrais practitioners, I see their work becoming more potent. “Since Donna introduced me to Dan Siegel’s work my classes have doubled. I can now lecture about the FM method more explicitly. My students are now more engrossed in what they are learning.” - Rich Goldsand, Feldenkrais Institute of Arizona.

    Ultimately, I believe we join together in relationships to create self-awareness and learning. The student relies on the practitioner for guidance and direction. The feelings generated in the learning relationship shape the brain and impact self-narrative, how we talk about our lives and ourselves. And they can change self-image, how we conduct ourselves based on what we believe we are capable of, thus impacting all our behaviors and relationships.

    As we create kind, compassionate, accepting, loving feelings in our relationships, we are affecting the brain’s limbic area, the control center of our emotions. Neuroscience studies show a change in the brain when self-awareness is developed. What I have called the “neutral state” between the extremes of the autonomic nervous system is what Dr. Siegel refers to as ”the open plane of possibilities.12 Siegel says, “Picture the sense of completely open possibility. Nothing is determined; anything is possible.13 In his words, “Wherever neural firing occurs, existing neurons can make new or enhanced synaptic connections through the process called synaptogenesis. New neurons can be stimulated to develop, as well–a process called neurogenesis.14 When we integrate feelings, thoughts, sensations, and behaviors, change takes place in the brain and in the mind. Simply, through the focus of attention, we use the mind to change the brain and through sensory motor awareness we use the brain to change the mind. This process transforms new states into new traits.

    Drawing inspiration from these two true visionaries, Dr. Feldenkrais and Dr. Siegel, provides a foundation that I believe optimizes the potential for me and others to guide students with greater care and precision. As FM practitioners we seek to create integration in many areas of our students’ lives. We seek to help them regulate the flow of energy and information in a harmonious fashion, away from rigidity or chaos toward integration, wellness, and harmonious living.

    This process of integration, approached by Drs. Siegel and Feldenkrais from different directions, leads us toward not only greater personal well-being but a better perspective on the world in which we all live. Dr. Feldenkrais had the gift of creating learning experiences that exemplified important concepts of neuroscience, learning, and human development. For example, he taught us proprioception: how to sense the position, location, orientation, and movement of the body and all of its parts. He taught to then link proprioception with learning, to recognize how these changes in movement affect our self-image. ATM lessons demonstrate the process of integration; through experiencing differentiation, linkage, and integration we fundamentally know what it means to become aware of our parts and to reorganize them to form functional, whole actions. Interoception–knowing our internal bodily states or what we feel, sense, and know from experience–becomes more accessible with ATM and FI. Knowing that we know originates in our embodied experiences of learning via the Feldenkrais Method. And each of these experiences changes the brain. As Dr. Feldenkrais said, “I am not interested in flexible bodies; I am interested in flexible brains.”

    Dr. Siegel has the gift of making the underlying neuroscience comprehensible for educators and psychotherapists as well as Feldenkrais practitioners, so we can deepen our understanding of what we do and share this information in a useful way with our students. He is a master of turning scientific principles and observations into snappy, memorable acronyms. He writes that one of his goals with a patient was to SNAG his brain, that is, to Stimulate Neuronal Activation and Growth. He demonstrates in his book Mindsight how he focuses his client Stuart’s attention to SNAG his right hemisphere. He goes on to say that “as we focus repeatedly on specific skills, moment-to-moment neural activity can gradually become an established trait through the power of neuroplasticity.15 Perhaps such an active image might be useful for FM practitioners: build the attunement, rapport, and trust with a student along with Functional Integration and you will be able to SNAG her brain and thus improve her life. (See how I snag my student Susie’s brain in the following case study.)

    Siegel refers to the “Triangle of Well-Being.” At the points of the triangle we see the brain, the mind, and relationships; each relates to the development of Mindsight. “Mindsight is the focused attention that allows us to see the internal workings of our own minds. It helps us to be aware of our mental processes without being swept away by them, enables us to get ourselves off the autopilot of ingrained behaviors and habitual responses, and moves us beyond the reactive emotional loops we all have a tendency to get trapped in.16 He relates this to the “Window of Tolerance,” opening the space for new experience, bodily sensations, emotions, and specific memories. When we are tolerant, we remain receptive; outside of the window, we become reactive. Within the relationship aspect of the Triangle of Well-Being we create the open space for new experience. Through my discussions with Siegel, I have learned that when he uses the term “brain” he is always including the nervous system, and when he refers to “mind,” he is thinking body/mind or embodied mind. I think it is necessary to point this out. Our language assumptions limit our thinking, and I don’t believe that most people are expanding mind to include the body and brain to include the nervous system. (As you read the case study of Susie, look for ways I open her Window of Tolerance in our relationship.)

    Here is a detailed case study that gives a fairly complex picture of how I combine the Feldenkrais Method and Interpersonal Neurobiology in my practice.

    Susie: A Case Study

    Susie is forty-five years old. She is suffering from lower back pain and anxiety. This is interfering with her ability to care for her children, perform her gym workouts, and maintain intimacy with her husband. She says, “The gym keeps me sane.” She has two children, four and six years old. Susie describes herself as very conscientious; she is driven to parent correctly. She also feels that she is not the mom she wants to be.

    Susie reports, “I often feel tense and overreact to my children and their frustrations. Instead of calming them down, I match their frustration and get angry. I usually make idle threats and we all end up scared and frustrated." She is unable to regulate her emotional responses with her children.

    Regarding her back pain, I ask her when she began working out at the gym. She says she has been doing so as long as she could remember, for an hour or two a day. She was a competitive tennis player during her childhood and adolescence and was emotionally and physically abused by her coach for many years. He used to yell and hit her with his tennis racket when she messed up. “I was afraid of him,” she says. She goes on to say her parents were unaware of this, and when she tried to tell them they did not take her seriously.

    We began this first session by establishing rapport and building trust. I attentively listened, attuned to Susie, and watched her breathing deepen. She spoke rapidly; I asked her to take her time and tell me all that was important to her. I scheduled extra time on the first visit so I could get to know her well. After she was finished speaking, I summarized what she had said, so she would know that I had been listening and understanding her. I asked her if I heard her correctly, and if she had more to say. She said she felt understood. She sighed with relief, her shoulders and face softened, and she asked me how this process worked.

    I established the groundwork of IPNB by describing in simple terms how the mind/body and the brain function. I noted the importance of the learning relationship, stressing that the ingredients for positive change and learning are safety, respect, trust, and acceptance, as well as physical and emotional comfort. I explained how this affects the limbic area of the brain (the emotional center) and the sensory motor cortex (the movement area) and that they integrate and change emotional response and movement simultaneously, creating physical comfort and improved relationships.

    I related this to the way the FM gently changes behavior patterns by breaking old habits and introducing new, improved habits. The brain is in charge of the ways each person repeats her patterns of behavior, both individually and in relationships. Before giving more cognitive information I wanted Susie to sense herself and engage in the process of sensory motor learning.

    I asked if she was comfortable continuing with a hands-on Functional Integration lesson. She nodded in agreement. I invited her to ask questions during the lesson and to report any feelings or sensations that felt significant to her. I organized the lesson around the functional theme of standing and turning. Asking her to stand, I faced her and placed my hands on her hips. I gently turned her while she was standing, sharing with her that I was sensing the quality of her movements, noticing what parts of her skeleton were participating in the turning movement. I began moving her pelvis, her center of gravity, seeking the place where her movement became effortless. When we guide attention through the touch and verbal directions of FI we are enabling the brain to sense the distinct parts of the skeleton and how they are working together, or not; focal attention is used to develop awareness. Coupling my attention with Susie’s, we created awareness that otherwise would not be achieved. Eventually, by sensitively focusing our attention in a non-judgmental way, she would learn implicitly to notice and sense everything efficiently moving together. With this improved movement, her emotional and physical pain could subside.

    Next, I asked Susie to lie on her back and guided her through a self-scan. I asked her to notice where various parts of her skeleton made contact with the table and to note her emotional state. This would give her the ability to observe changes at the end of the lesson. I then asked her to lie on her side, the way she would if she were napping in her most comfortable position. I gently moved her, going toward the easiest directions first. This non- invasive approach creates trust and eliminates fear and resistance. By placing my hands in a variety of places on her body, differentiating and linking various parts of the skeleton, I provoked her awareness of her musculoskeletal movements, demonstrating to her how everything can act together harmoniously. Enhancing her interoception and her proprioception allowed her to recognize the new patterns of movement available. The nervous system is self-correcting when the student is handled gently and clearly. This enables them to feel understood and supported while they experience deep, integrative change.

    I asked Susie to lie on her back again, and to notice how she was resting on the table compared to the beginning of the session. On her back she felt expanded, lighter, and calmer. Then I asked her to sit up. While sitting, she felt calmer, taller, and her pain had subsided. She stood and walked, further exploring the changes. She said she felt relieved and hopeful for the first time in months. I saw and felt the new state she was in and thought to myself how quickly she was able to move beyond the old pattern.

    We shared this happy moment and then spoke of how this feeling would continue. I asked her to notice when she felt this way each day. This would train her attention to look for feelings of hope, wellness, calmness, and pleasure. Training a client’s attention helps her cultivate a new state of ease and begin to eliminate old patterns of anxiety, tension, and pain. From past experience, I knew Susie would begin to carry my voice with her. Remembering my gentle guidance would enhance her self-care.

    I then taught Susie a small, mindful movement that would calm her and keep the changes ongoing. I asked her to simply place her left hand on her left thigh, and then to notice all the parts of her hand and fingers resting on her thigh. I directed her to slide her hand toward her knee and toward her hip, very slowly, noticing all the parts of herself involved with the movement. As she experienced this for the first time she took a deep, calming breath.

    I shared with her that she was learning to shift her nervous system away from the fight/ flight of the sympathetic, and that she would learn to find this neutral state. She could do this movement at any time to calm herself, whether alone or with her children. She could simply place her left hand on her left thigh, sense all the parts of her hand, and notice her breathing. I assured her that this ability to shift the state in her nervous system would become easier and quicker.

    Susie’s case is an example of cultivating a new state so that it will become a trait. Her response reminded me of the first lesson I received, and the hopeful new sense of myself I experienced, so long ago. Susie, her husband, and her children would all benefit from her new state. And with more lessons this new state would become a new trait that would help her become the mother that she is longing to be.


    The foundation of Functional Integration is using a coherent functional theme to create the integration of the parts. The functional aspect of the movement learning experience relates to early childhood learning. During infancy and early childhood, movement exploration is generated by the need to problem-solve while exploring the environment, as does a baby wanting to reach for her bottle, or pick up a toy. With the mind's intention, the organization of all of the human parts–the brain, nervous system, and musculoskeletal system–becomes greater than the sum of our parts. Intention translates to clear action when all of these parts integrate harmoniously. This organization evokes Siegel’s metaphor of ‘The River of Integration’: “The central channel of the river is the ever-changing flow of integration and harmony. One boundary of this flow is chaos. The other boundary is rigidity…Sometimes we move toward the bank of rigidity–we feel stuck. Other days we lean toward chaos–life feels unpredictable and out of control. But in general, when we are well and at ease, we move along this winding path of harmony, the integrated flow of a flexible system.17 I first heard this metaphor used by the late dynamic systems theorist, psychologist Dr. Esther Thelen. She would describe the flow of the river, asking her students to imagine the water, the rocks, the earth, the, foliage, the twists and turns of the riverbed, the change of temperature causing evaporation and rainfall, pointing out that everything in the system counts and every part of the system affects all other parts, and that the parts create a dynamic system we call river. Siegel interchanges the term “complexity theory” with dynamic systems theory. The brain can be considered as a living system that is open and dynamic. It has many subsystems that interact, that are constantly changing. A living system is open to outside influences and in order to survive it must be adaptable and changeable with continuously emerging properties. An open, flexible, dynamic system displays the ability to integrate its parts harmoniously, while in times of stress it appears to disintegrate or become chaotic. As Feldenkrais put it, “I hope to show that the human frame is essentially a dynamic organization, that human behavior is equally dynamic, and that therefore, “human nature” is a dynamic entity made up of some inherited features and of personal experience, and that most of the limitations we encounter are imputable to the personal experiences we are subjected to rather than to inheritance.”

    Through the practice of the Feldenkrais Method we are able to recover and rediscover this state of balance, our equilibrium, a functional state of integration. Feldenkrais said our resilience is a direct reflection of our state of health. IPNB can strengthen our practice of the FM by deepening our understanding of how what we do with our students really works. In Dr. Feldenkrais’s own words, “Many people fail to recognize the true cause of their inability or failure. The cause is very often not lack of ability, but improper use of self—there must not be too little an urge to do, a desire to act, nor too much. Now, we may not be able to influence our inheritance, but we have a large measure of control over our urges and over the means of freeing them from inhibiting agents of which we are rarely aware.”

    Donna Ray, M.A., MFT, is an internationally known Feldenkrais Trainer and psychotherapist. She practices in Encinitas/San Diego, California. Her practice includes people of all ages and stages of life. She is an active member of The Mindsight Institute in Los Angeles, directed by Dan Siegel, M.D. and a member of the Feldenkrais Guild of North America. She can be reached at www.feldenkraissoutherncalifornia.com, 760-436-9087


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    3. Daniel Siegel,Mindsight:The New Science of Personal Transformation(New York:Bantam Books,2010),71
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